WEB DEVELOPMENT

Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications, electronic businesses, and social network services. A more comprehensive list of tasks to which web development commonly refers, may include web design, web content development, client liaison, client-side/server-side scripting,web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development. Among web professionals, “web development” usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building web sites: writing markup and coding.

Since the commercialization of the web, web development has been a growing industry. The growth of this industry is being pushed especially by businesses wishing to sell products and services to online customers.

For tools and platforms, the public can use many open source systems to aid in web development. A popular example, the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack is available for download online free of charge. This has kept the cost of learning web development to a minimum. Another contributing factor to the growth of the industry has been the rise of easy-to-use WYSIWYG web-development software, most prominently Adobe Dreamweaver, WebDev, and Microsoft Expression Studio. Using such software, virtually anyone can relatively quickly learn to develop a very basic web page. Knowledge of HyperText Markup Language (HTML) or of programming languages is still required to use such software, but the basics can be learned and implemented quickly with the help of help files, technical books, internet tutorials, or face-to-face training.

Web Development can be split into many areas and a typical and basic web development hierarchy might consist of:
Client side coding
  • Ajax Asynchronous JavaScript provides new methods of using JavaScript, and other languages to improve the user experience.
  • Flash Adobe Flash Player is a ubiquitous browser plugin ready for RIAs. Flex 2 is also deployed to the Flash Player (version 9+).
  • JavaScript JavaScript is a ubiquitous client side platform for creating and delivering rich web applications that can also run across a wide variety of devices. It is a dialect of the scripting language ECMAScript.
  • jQuery Cross-browser JavaScript library designed to simplify and speed up the client-side scripting of HTML.
  • AngularJS, BackboneJS, EmberJS and ReactJS are client-side MVC technologies introduced for building single page application and offline applications for both desktop and mobile. They make the application more modular and also help dramatically increase development speed.
  • HTML5 and CSS3 Latest HTML proposed standard combined with the latest proposed standard for CSS natively supports much of the client-side functionality provided by other frameworks such as Flash and Silverlight
  • Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), WebGL and Canvas deliver 2D and 3D capabilities, often used through JavaScript libraries; D3js (2D datavisualisations) and threeJS (3D) are popular examples.

 

Looking at these items from an “umbrella approach”, client side coding such as XHTML is executed and stored on a local client (in a web browser) whereas server side code is not available to a client and is executed on a web server which generates the appropriate XHTML which is then sent to the client. The nature of client side coding allows one to alter the HTML on a local client and refresh the pages with updated content (locally), web designers must bear in mind the importance and relevance to security with their server side scripts. If a server side script accepts content from a locally modified client side script, the web development of that page is poorly sanitized with relation to security.

Server side coding
  • ColdFusion (Adobe proprietary, formerly Macromedia, formerly Allaire)
  • PHP (open source)
  • Python, e.g. Django (web framework) (open source)
  • ASP (Microsoft proprietary)
Client side + server side
  • Google Web Toolkit provides tools to create and maintain complex JavaScript front-end applications in Java.
  • Dart provides tools to create and maintain complex JavaScript front-end applications as well as supporting server-side code in Dart (programming language).
  • Opa is a high-level language in which both the client and the server parts are implemented. The compiler then decides which parts run on the client (and are translated automatically to JavaScript) and which parts run on the server. The developer can tune those decisions with simple directives. (open source)

 

However languages like Ruby and Python are often paired with database servers other than MySQL (the M in LAMP). Below are example of other databases currently in wide use on the web. For instance some developers prefer a LAPR (Linux/Apache/PostgreSQL/Ruby on Rails) setup for development.

Database technology
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • MySQL *
  • Oracle
  • PostgreSQL

Web Development

Web design

Web Maintenance

E-Commerce Solution

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